Structural Applications

Stainless steels are a very good choice for structural applications. Articles and case studies on these applications can be found in this area of the website.

Stainless Steel and Glass

The examples presented in this brochure show the interplay of stainless steel and glass - two materials that are so different yet, because of their special characteristics, wonderfully complementary.

This brochure is available in Czech, Dutch, English, German, Finnish, French, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish [clicking on the language will download the pdf]

Published: 19/8/2016
Last modified: 19/8/2016

Stainless Steel in Infrastructure

 The efficient operation of public infrastructure has a strong effect on the quality of our daily lives: reliable access to energy and drinking water; the ease of travelling by road, rail, air or water; the safe disposal of waste and sewage; all determine how we live and work. In these sectors, stainless steel plays an important but often unnoticed role.
Material selection is a decisive factor for the durability of infrastructural buildings and installations. It is the key to maximum availability and low life-cycle cost. The present brochure illustrates examples of stainless steel use in infrastructural applications in different parts of the world. It will foster the exchange of best practice and encourage authorities, private investors and design engineers to consider the stainless steel option whenever they embark upon infrastructural projects.

The brochure is available in English and Chinese [clicking on the language will open the brochure]

Published: 5/7/2016
Last modified: 5/7/2016

Stainless Steel for Designers

It can sometimes be difficult to find a ready reference for the key properties of stainless steel. The International Stainless Steel Forum (ISSF) has published a new brochure which lists a comprehensive range of authoritative publications on this topic.

The corrosion resistant properties of stainless steels are well known to engineers and designers, as well as the general public. But other important properties may be less known, and stainless steel is frequently a good solution for reasons other than corrosion resistance.

ISSF has developed this brochure to provide a handy reference source to help engineers and designers to decide whether to use stainless steel, and, if so, which grade to use. The brochure has chapters dealing with a wide range of relevant topics, from abrasion resistance to fire resistance and further on to mechanical and physical properties. The publications to which it refers can be downloaded from links provided in the brochure.

The brochure is available here.

Published: 1/4/2016
Last modified: 1/4/2016

Design Manual for Structural Stainless Steel

A very comprehensive manual based on a European joint work for designers of stainless steel structures. Includes practical advice on fabrication an design examples.

Download the manual here

Published: 15/12/2015
Last modified: 15/12/2015

When New Meets Old

Stainless Steel in Renovation and Renewal

The challenge of preserving the old while creating the new is giving rise to some exciting new architectural achievements. Firmly embedded within this balance between innovation and tradition is stainless steel - in structural applications such as cables or profiles, where its strength allows open, wide-span constructions, and as cladding covering surfaces on the inside and outside of buildings. The collection of examples shown in this Euro Inox brochure takes a broad view of the theme New Meets Old. It includes historic buildings where careful intervention has rescued them from decline and preserved them for future generations. But the spectrum of bold, innovative solutions with stainless steel also encompasses more modern buildings from the second half of the last century which are increasingly falling short of modern requirements.

This brochure is available in English, Czech, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish. [clicking on the language will open the pdf]

Published: 1/12/2015
Last modified: 1/12/2015

Built to Last - Stainless Steel as an Architectural Material

Only a couple of years after the invention of stainless steels, architects started discovering its potential for building and construction - in both visible and non-visible applications. The present publication shows just a few of the recent examples. However diverse they may be in terms of scope, purpose and product used, they have one thing in common: they are part of an architecture that is made to last.

This brochure is available in English and Chinese.

Published: 12/6/2015
Last modified: 12/6/2015

Structural Applications of Ferritic Stainless Steels

Despite many attractive characteristics, ferritic stainless steel is currently under-used in the construction industry due to a lack of reliable information relating to structural behaviour. A three year pan-European project was completed in 2014 which studied the structural performance of ferritic stainless steels. The objectives of the project were:

  • To develop Eurocode-aligned structural guidance for ferritic grades not previously studied but which were identified as being appropriate for structural use;
  • To study construction-relevant aspects of structural design and corrosion resistance which have not been studied before (e.g. the performance of structural joints, structural fire resistance, corrosion performance of welded and bolted joints etc.); and
  • To examine the structural performance and temperature regulation effects of ferritic stainless steel decking in a composite floor system.

The SAFSS project, which included material and member testing as well as analytical and numerical studies, provided practitioners with useful performance data and design guidance so that ferritic stainless steels can be specified in structures with confidence. The project was, in general, limited to developing guidance relevant to these applications involving material less than 6 mm thick in both welded and bolted construction. Five ferritic grades were studied, with varying levels of corrosion resistance (and cost).

This project was carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel of the European Community and the International Chromium Development Association.

For more information, please contact Nancy Baddoo at the Steel Construction Institute (

All project reports and a summary report can be found on the SCI Stainless Steel Portal:

Published: 22/1/2015
Last modified: 22/1/2015

Stainless Steel Reinforced Concrete: a durable choice

Technical paper from the cement together with the stainless steel industry, describing the advantages of stainless steel reinforced concrete.
This resource is in French.

Download the paper from here

Published: 17/12/2013
Last modified: 17/12/2013

AISC Design Guide 27: Structural Stainless Steel

Design Guide 27, Structural Stainless Steel, provides guidance for the design of structural stainless steel. It is written for engineers experienced in the design of carbon steel structural components but not necessarily in the design of stainless steel structures, and is aligned with the design provisions in the 2010 AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. It applies to the design of structural hot-rolled or welded open sections such as I-shaped members, channels, and equal-leg angles. It also applies to rectangular and round hollow structural sections (HSS). The guidance provided is applicable to austenitic, duplex and precipitation hardening stainless steel structural sections with thickness 1/8 in. (3 mm) and greater. Major topics covered are material behavior and selection, cross-section design, member design, connections, and fabrication. Design Examples are also included.

Source: American Institute of Steel Construction

Download the guide here

Published: 22/11/2013
Last modified: 22/11/2013

Stainless Steel Rebar

The use of stainless steel rebar in concrete is becoming more important today. Stainless steel provides long and maintenance-free life of structures, as it resists corrosion from aggressive environments. Cedinox just published a book which presents scientific research techniques as well as case studies of applications of stainless steel reinforced concrete.

This resource is in Spanish.

Source: Cedinox

You can download the book here.

Published: 21/11/2013
Last modified: 21/11/2013

Stainless Steel New Applications - Structural Applications

The following examples from the ISSF Books of New Applications 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2011 show some of the possible applications with stainless steel in Structural Applications (clicking on the application will open a pdf with more information):

Published: 4/10/2013
Last modified: 4/10/2013

Structural Stainless Steel Case Studies

Team Stainless sponsored a series of Structural Stainless Steel Case Studies, which were written by the Steel Construction Institute. The following case studies were done (clicking on the language will open the case study):

  1. Stonecutters bridge towers (English|Chinese)
  2. Cala Galdana Bridge (English|Chinese)
  3. Composite Floor at Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce (English|Chinese)
  4. Armada Platform Accomodation Modules (English|Chinese)
  5. Siena Footbridge (English|Chinese)
  6. Masonry Support System at Big Wood School (English|Chinese)
  7. The Pavilion, Regent’s Place (English|Chinese)
  8. Thames Gateway Water Treatment Works (English|Chinese)
  9. New Beijing Poly Plaza Cable-Net Wall (English|Chinese)
  10. Schubert Club Band Shell (English|Chinese)
  11. Helix Pedestrian Bridge (English|Chinese)
  12. Parliament Library Building Domes (English|Chinese)

Published: 8/10/2012
Last modified: 8/10/2012

Stainless Steel Reinforcing Bar

Unlike conventional steel rebar, stainless steel rebar does not corrode and is an ideal solution for harsh environments.

ISSF has several publications on reinforcing bar.

  • A website to raise awareness of the life cycle cost advantages of stainless steel reinforcement bar, compiled by an international group of experts. It provides answers to frequently asked technical questions. Numerous references show how public and private investors have made use of stainless steel reinforcement to enhance the durability of their concrete structures:
  • A flash presentation describing the advantages of using stainless steel rebar. See the animation.
  • A leaflet which answers some basic questions on stainless steel rebar:Why stainless steel reinforcing bar? What are the benefits? Is it cost-effective? Download the leaflet - available in English, Italian and Spanish.
  • Posters that give an overview of the why, when, where and how of stainless steel reinforcing bar. Download the posters - click here to open the pdf

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Stainless Steel in Building and Construction: Long Products for Lasting Solutions

The images in this animation show just some of the long products applications for stainless steel ...

See the animation

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Stainless Steel Long Products for Building and Construction

This excerpt from the brochure “Applications for Stainless Steel Long Products” gives more information on applications in the area of Building and Construction.

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Stonecutters Bridge Towers

Stonecutters Bridge, Hong Kong, is a cable stayed structure with a total length of 1596 m and a main span of 1018 m. Opened at the end of 2009, the bridge crosses the Rambler Channel and is the main entrance to the busy Kwai Chung Container Port. It is visible from many parts of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon. The most striking features of the bridge are the twin tapered mono towers at each end supporting the 50 m wide deck. These tapered towers rise to 295 m above sea level; the lower sections are reinforced concrete while the upper 115 m are composite sections with an outer stainless steel skin and a reinforced concrete core.

Download case study

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Cala Galdana Bridge

The Cala Galdana Bridge crosses the Algendar River in Menorca. There are panoramic views of this popular beach-side holiday resort from the 55 m span, 13 m wide road bridge. The main structure of the bridge is entirely stainless steel and includes two parallel arches, two longitudinal beams and transverse beams supporting the deck. Reinforced concrete makes up the abutments at each end, which sit on piled foundations. The bridge, opened in 2005, was the first stainless steel road bridge in Europe.

Download case study

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Composite Floor at Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce

The new headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg was completed in 2004. It is located on the Kirchberg plateau of Luxembourg and comprises a fully renovated existing building of 5,000 m2 and new buildings providing an additional 20,000 m2 of office space. The new buildings form a succession of four distinct wings linked together by glass footbridges. They have a steel primary frame with glass and steel façades, and the floors are designed as composite slabs using stainless steel panels profiled in a sinusoidal shape. Within the composite floor slab, water-carrying plastic pipes are placed to provide heating and cooling through the exposed stainless steel ceilings, leading to significant energy savings.

Download case study

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Armada Platform Accomodation Modules

The Armada Platform is operated by BG Group and exploits three gas and condensate fields in the Central North Sea, 250 km east of Aberdeen. It comprises a four legged steel spaceframe jacket supporting a single integrated deck containing wellhead, process and accommodation facilities. The living facilities on the platform required extending to accommodate 59 personnel. Four blast and fire rated accommodation modules and two walkway modules linking the new modules to the existing accommodation were added to the platform in 2009. The structural cladding of these modules was corrugated stainless steel.

Download case study

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Siena Footbridge

Completed in 2006, this stainless steel cable stayed pedestrian footbridge spans 60 m over a busy motorway in the suburb of Ruffolo, Siena, in central Italy. The bridge girders and pylons are fabricated from a ‘lean’ duplex grade of stainless steel and it is one of the first times this grade has been used for a footbridge. The bridge has a striking appearance, is functionally efficient and cost-effective with a low life cycle cost.

Download case study

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Masonry support system at Big Wood School

Big Wood Secondary School in Nottingham is situated on the edge of Bestwood Country Park, with approximately 750 pupils aged between 11 and 16 currently on the roll. As part of the UK Government’s Building Schools for the Future initiative, the school is being completely rebuilt and the first phase of the £18 million development, the construction of three two-storey rectangular teaching blocks (about 40 m x 20 m in plan), was opened in the autumn of 2009. The buildings are brick-clad, structural steelwork frames, with composite floors. The brickwork is supported by a stainless steel masonry support system over the windows (some are in excess of 9 m wide). The support system provides a horizontal ledge for the masonry and is fixed to rectangular hollow edge beams.

Download case study

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

The Pavilion

The Pavilion marks the new western entrance into Regent's Place, a 13-acre development in the heart of London which features retail, leisure and public spaces. It is a structure made entirely of stainless steel in which a field of vertical columns supports a roof canopy 8 m above street level. The pavilion is 20 m by 5 m in plan, with 258 highly slender rectangular hollow sections supporting a roof plane, reflecting sunlight during the day and projecting light at night from lights integrated into the paving. The structure was opened to the public in 2009 and won a 2010 Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Award for architectural excellence.

Download case study

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Helix Pedestrian Bridge

The Helix Bridge is a landmark pedestrian bridge in Singapore, comprising a walkway surrounded by opposing double helix structures made from stainless steel. The design was inspired by the geometric helicoidal arrangement of DNA, which is seen as a symbol of continuity and renewal. The 280 m long bridge is the first double-helix bridge in the world and forms part of a 3.5 km continuous waterfront promenade, linking the Marina Centre, the waterfront area and a large casino/hotel resort. It is a very lightweight structure built almost entirely using duplex stainless steel.

Download case study

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

New Beijing Poly Plaza Cable-Net Wall

Beijing’s Poly Plaza is the new headquarters for China Poly, a state-owned organisation with diverse responsibilities in the defence trade, real estate, cultural industries and mineral exploration. In addition to the company’s headquarters, the 100,000 m2 building comprises office space, shops and restaurants. The structure is triangular in plan, with an L-shaped office block forming two sides and the third side formed by one of the world’s largest cable-net glass curtain walls. This creates a large atrium inside the structure, within which the 8 storey Poly Museum—‘The lantern’—is suspended. Stainless steel cables and castings support the cable-net wall. The support fittings were cast from high strength duplex stainless steel.

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Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Schubert Club Band Shell

The Schubert Club Band Shell is an outdoor venue for performing arts on Raspberry Island, in the middle of the Mississippi River in St Paul, Minnesota. It was commissioned by the Schubert Club and completed in 2002. The island had been neglected for many years before the Band Shell was built but now offers generous pedestrian walkways, unique and scenic vistas as well as a central location. The structure itself is saddle-shaped (anticlastic) and brings together concrete, wood, stainless steel and laminated glass to create a functional space. The design team developed a 7.6 m wide stainless steel lattice grid that spans 15.2 m between precast concrete abutments and covers a wood-framed stage. Acid-etched glass is offset from and supported by the lattice.

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Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Parliament Library Building Domes

The Parliament Library building in New Delhi, India, was completed in 2002. Given the significance of the building, the developers (Central Public Works Department) were keen to use the best materials possible, with the latest technologies. It was also imperative for the building to blend in with the surrounding environment. The result is a four-storey building, two floors of which are above ground. The main architectural feature is the twelve individual domes which make up the roof, each comprising different dimensions, designs and materials. The domes are both the highest and most recognisable elements of the building. Two of the domes are made from glass and stainless steel.

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Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Online Stainless Steel in Construction Information Centre

The Online Information Centre for Stainless Steel in Construction which contains over 100 resources about the design, specification, fabrication and installation of stainless steel in construction. The Information Centre provides access to a wide range of up-to-date information for architects, engineers, fabricators, installers and academics, including technical guidance, design software, design data, case studies and research papers.

Source: Steel Construction Institute

Open this website

Published: 11/5/2012
Last modified: 11/5/2012

Thames Gateway Water Treatment

The first water desalination plant in the UK, the Thames Gateway Water Treatment Works in East London, opens in 2010. It will treat water from the brackish waters of the River Thames, producing up to 140 million litres of clean, fresh, drinking water each day during times of drought or extended periods of low rainfall, or to maintain supplies in the event of an incident at other water treatment facilities. Within the plant, saline river water passes through lamella clarifiers to remove solid particles. The clarifiers are large, open tanks containing a coarse filter media that is supported by a grillage of 78 stainless steel I-beams.

Source: Team Stainless

Download this document

Published: 10/5/2012
Last modified: 10/5/2012

Rationale for Using Stainless Steel Reinforcement in the UK Construction Industry

This paper was presented at ISSF-7 conference in May 2003 by Graham Gedge from Arup. The Open Panel Discussion is summarized at the end of the paper.

Download paper here

Published: 4/5/2012
Last modified: 4/5/2012